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Coinmetro Crypto Glossary

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51% Attack

A 51% attack refers to a scenario where a single entity or a group of colluding entities control over 51% of the total computing power (hashrate) in a blockchain network.

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Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy originally conceived by American economist Murray Rothbard.

Account Abstraction  

Account abstraction simplifies user interactions with blockchain by allowing customization of smart contract accounts.

Aroon Indicator

The Aroon Indicator is used to identify the existence, changes, and corrective retracements and gauge the strength of an ongoing trend in financial markets.

All-time High (ATH)

An all-time high (ATH) in the context of cryptocurrency refers to the highest price or market capitalization that a cryptocurrency has reached since its inception.

Adoption Curve

The adoption curve is a model that illustrates the rate at which a new technology is accepted and adopted by users.

Administrative Expenses

Administrative expenses are costs related to the general operation of an organization that are not directly tied to production or sales.

Assets Under Management (AUM)

Assets under management (AUM) measures the total market value of all the funds controlled by an individual or financial institution on behalf of their clients.

Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT)  

The Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) is a financial model that provides insights into how market securities are priced.

All-Time-Low (ATL)

An all-time low (ATL) in the context of cryptocurrency refers to the lowest price point that a cryptocurrency has ever reached since its introduction into the market.

Asset-Backed Tokens

Asset-backed tokens are digital representations of a physical asset on a blockchain. These tokens provide a digital claim to an underlying physical asset, such as gold, real estate, or artwork.

Average Daily Trading Volume (ADTV)

The average daily trading volume (ADTV) refers to the typical number of shares or coins of a stock or cryptocurrency that are traded on the market during a standard trading day.


Accountability is the principle of being responsible for one's actions and accepting the consequences that come with them.

ASIC - Application-Specific Integrated Circuit

An ASIC, or Application-Specific Integrated Circuit, is a type of semiconductor device specifically designed to perform a particular task or set of tasks.

Arm Virtual Machine (QTUM)

The Arm Virtual Machine (QTUM) represents a significant aspect of the Qtum blockchain platform, enhancing the decentralization and execution of applications.

Agency Theory

Agency Theory is a significant concept that addresses the dynamics between principals (such as shareholders or owners) and agents (such as company executives or managers).

Acquisition Premium

An acquisition premium refers to the additional amount an acquiring company pays over the assessed market value of the target company during a merger or acquisition.


Antivirus software is a crucial tool designed to protect computers and other devices from malicious software, including viruses, worms, and trojan horses.

Altcoin Trader

Altcoin traders (individuals or entities) specialize in trading alternative cryptocurrencies — digital currencies other than Bitcoin.

Average Selling Price (ASP)

The Average Selling Price (ASP) refers to the mean amount at which a specific item is sold over a defined period.

Absolute Advantage

Absolute advantage exists when an entity can produce a greater quantity of a good or service than others with the same quantity of resources, or produce the same quantity as others but with fewer resources.

Air Gap

An air gap refers to the practice of isolating a computer, database, or network from external networks, including the internet and local area networks (LANs).


Airdrops refer to the distribution of free tokens to existing holders of a particular cryptocurrency or to individuals who meet specific criteria. This generous act has become a popular strategy for crypto projects to gain visibility, foster community engagement, and distribute tokens widely.

Atomic Swap

An atomic swap, also known as atomic cross-chain trading, is a cryptographic protocol that allows two parties to exchange different cryptocurrencies or digital assets directly, between two blockchains, without the need for an intermediary or trusted third party.


Brute Force Attack (BFA)

A Brute Force Attack (BFA) is a cybersecurity term that refers to a method used by malicious actors to gain unauthorized access to a system or data by trying every possible combination of characters until the correct password is found.

Balanced Fund

Balanced funds refer to mutual funds containing both stock and bond components in a single portfolio.

Balloon Payment

A balloon payment refers to a large, lump-sum amount due at the end of a loan term, often used in balloon loans.


A Bitcoiner is someone who supports Bitcoin enthusiastically. Typically, this person believes strongly in Bitcoin's long-term value and potential as a decentralized currency.

Benchmark Index

A benchmark index is a standard against which the performance of securities, portfolios, or investment strategies can be measured.

Bear Hug

A "bear hug" is a term used in the context of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) to describe a specific type of aggressive takeover strategy. Unlike typical aggressive takeover attempts, a bear hug involves the acquirer offering a significantly higher purchase price than the target company's current market value.

Block Explorer

Understanding and accessing detailed information about blockchain activities is crucial. This is where a Block Explorer, also known as a blockchain browser, becomes an invaluable tool for users, developers, and researchers.

Block Reward

A block reward refers to the number of coins or tokens awarded to a miner or group of miners after successfully solving the cryptographic challenge required to create a new block on a blockchain.

Black-Scholes Model

The Black-Scholes Model, a groundbreaking framework in financial economics, was developed by Fischer Black and Myron Scholes in 1973, with key extensions from Robert C. Merton.


Bail-ins are an internal approach to saving a struggling institution.

Bayes' Theorem

Bayes' Theorem is a way to calculate the probability of an event based on prior knowledge of conditions that might be related to the event.


A bit is a commonly used unit of Bitcoin, serving as a subdivision of the cryptocurrency. To put it simply, a bit is one millionth of a Bitcoin

Bug Exploit

A bug exploit is a form of cyberattack that capitalizes on vulnerabilities within a system or software application to achieve various malicious objectives.

BRC-20 Bitcoin Token Standard

The BRC-20 token standard marks a significant experimental shift in the Bitcoin blockchain's capabilities. This innovative approach leverages the Ordinals protocol, enabling the creation, issuance, and management of fungible tokens directly on Bitcoin's base layer.

Blockchain Explorer

A Blockchain Explorer is a web-based tool that allows users to interact with and explore the data stored on a blockchain. It provides a user-friendly interface to navigate through the various transactions, blocks, and addresses within a blockchain network.

Blockchain Confirmation

A blockchain confirmation is essentially the validation and acknowledgment that a transaction has been successfully added to the blockchain. It's the digital seal of approval that ensures the permanence and accuracy of the recorded transaction.

Beacon Chain

The Beacon Chain is Ethereum’s Proof-of-Stake layer and serves as the backbone of the new Ethereum network. The Beacon Chain manages the consensus protocol and coordinates the activities of validators, who are responsible for proposing and validating blocks in the Ethereum 2.0 network.

Bull Market

A bull market is a term used to describe a prolonged period of optimism, rising prices, and increased investor confidence in the financial markets. In this type of market, asset prices, such as stocks, bonds, or cryptocurrencies, experience a sustained upward trend. Investors often refer to bull markets as times of opportunity and potential profit.

Blockchain Trilemma

In the world of blockchain technology, the term "trilemma" refers to the challenging trade-off between three crucial aspects: decentralization, security, and scalability. Balancing these elements is essential to harness the full potential of blockchain networks and drive widespread adoption.

Bear Market

A bear market is a term used to describe a prolonged period of declining asset prices, typically accompanied by widespread pessimism and investor sell-offs.

Bitcoin Halving

Bitcoin halving is a significant event in the life cycle of the Bitcoin network, where the reward for mining new blocks is halved periodically. The process occurs approximately every four years or after 210,000 blocks have been added to the Bitcoin blockchain.

Byzantine Fault Tolerance

Discover the principles behind Byzantine Fault Tolerance and its impact on resilient systems. Explore now!

Bitcoin Pizza Day

The Bitcoin Pizza Day is a story that serves as both a celebration of Bitcoin's early days and a stark reminder of how far the cryptocurrency has come.

Blockchain Interoperability

Blockchain interoperability refers to the ability of different blockchain networks to communicate, share data, and perform transactions across each other seamlessly. It aims to break down the barriers that isolate blockchains, enabling them to work together as part of a broader interconnected ecosystem.



A coordinator in blockchain technology is a specialized client that plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity and consistency of the ledger.

Collateral Margin

Collateral margin is the percentage of an investment's total value that an investor must fund using their own money, with the remainder covered by financing from a broker.

Cryptographic Hash Function

A cryptographic hash function is a mathematical algorithm that converts a variable-sized input into a fixed-size string of characters, which is typically a hash value.


A crowdloan is a fundraising mechanism used by new projects to secure slots on the Kusama or Polkadot networks.

Composable DeFi

Composable DeFi refers to the interoperability between different decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols.

Change Address

In cryptocurrency transactions, particularly within UTXO-based chains like Bitcoin, a change address is used to receive the difference between the input amount and the transaction value.


Consolidation in trading refers to a period where a cryptocurrency or any other asset trades within a defined range between two price levels.

Core Wallet

A Core Wallet, often known as a full node wallet, is a type of cryptocurrency wallet that downloads and maintains a complete copy of the blockchain.


In the context of cryptocurrency, a confirmation is an acknowledgment that a transaction has been processed and added to the blockchain.

Concentrated Liquidity

Concentrated liquidity represents a significant evolution in the field of decentralized finance (DeFi) and liquidity provision.

Crypto Winter

Crypto Winter refers to a distinct phase within the cryptocurrency market characterized by a substantial decline in the prices of most major coins from their all-time highs.


Crowdfunding is a financing method that has gained significant popularity in recent years, allowing individuals, startups, and organizations to raise funds for their projects, ventures, or causes through contributions from a large number of people, typically via online platforms.


In the context of cryptocurrency, "custodial" refers to services or solutions where a third party holds and manages the private keys associated with a user's cryptocurrency assets.

Crypto Bounties

Crypto bounties, in their essence, are reward systems offered by blockchain projects or companies to individuals in exchange for specific tasks or contributions. Whether it's identifying and resolving security vulnerabilities, promoting the project through social media and other channels, or contributing code to enhance functionality, these bounties create a win-win scenario.

Cross-Chain Transactions

Cross-Chain Transactions, often referred to as inter-blockchain transactions or cross-chain swaps, are a critical concept in the blockchain and cryptocurrency space. They enable the movement of digital assets and data between different blockchain networks. In essence, cross-chain transactions bridge the gap between various isolated blockchains, allowing them to interact and exchange value.

Crypto Market Cap

Crypto market cap, short for "cryptocurrency market capitalization," is a fundamental metric in the world of digital currencies. It represents the total value of a specific cryptocurrency or the entire cryptocurrency market. In simpler terms, it quantifies the combined value of all the coins or tokens in circulation for a particular cryptocurrency.

Crypto Address

A crypto address is a fundamental concept in the crypto landscape. Essentially, a crypto address functions as a virtual mailbox specifically designed for storing, sending and receiving cryptocurrencies. It serves as a digital gateway that facilitates the smooth flow of funds, allowing users to send and receive digital assets with ease and security.


Cryptojacking refers to the unauthorized use of someone's computing resources to mine cryptocurrencies without their knowledge or consent.

Crypto Faucet

At its core, a crypto faucet is a website or application that rewards users with small amounts of cryptocurrency for completing specific tasks or captcha challenges. These tasks can vary widely, from viewing ads to playing games, taking surveys, or simply clicking a button at regular intervals.

Cryptocurrency Exchange

Exchanges are the essential gateways for buying, selling, and trading digital assets. Two primary types of exchanges have emerged: centralized exchanges (CEXs) and decentralized exchanges (DEXs).



Deflation is a decline in the general level of prices for goods and services in an economy. This economic phenomenon is the opposite of inflation, where prices rise over time.

Dex Aggregator

A decentralized exchange (DEX) aggregator is a blockchain-based service designed to enhance the efficiency and accessibility of cryptocurrency trading.

DeFi Aggregator

A DeFi aggregator is a tool that simplifies the process of interacting with multiple decentralized finance (DeFi) platforms by consolidating trades and investments into a single interface.


In the context of cryptocurrency, dumping refers to the rapid selling of large quantities of a particular cryptocurrency within a short timeframe.


Darknodes served as the backbone of RenVM, which is now inactive (May, 2024).

Deterministic Wallet

A deterministic wallet, also known as an HD (Hierarchical Deterministic) wallet, is a sophisticated form of cryptocurrency wallet that generates all of its keys and addresses from a single starting point, known as a seed.

DAO Summoning

DAO summoning refers to the process of establishing or creating a Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO).


DotSama is a newly coined term within the cryptocurrency community, primarily used to encapsulate the combined ecosystems of Kusama and Polkadot.

Decentralized Application Programming Interfaces (dAPIs)

The interface between conventional internet services and blockchain platforms plays a crucial role in the widespread adoption of decentralized applications.

Dual-token Economy Model

A dual-token economy, also known as a two-token model, is a framework within the blockchain industry where a project utilizes two distinct types of tokens.

Decentralized Network

A decentralized network consists of multiple independent nodes or entities (computers) that work together without a central authority or server directing their operations

Digital Barter Economy

The concept of a "Digital Barter Economy" represents an innovative blend of ancient trade practices and modern digital technology. This system facilitates the exchange of goods and services without the need for traditional currency, leveraging digital platforms and tools to match offers and needs.

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)

The Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) is a sophisticated data structure that plays a pivotal role in various fields, including computer science, mathematics, and more recently, blockchain technology.

Derivatives Market

The derivatives market in the context of cryptocurrency is a public platform where participants can trade contracts whose value is based on the performance of underlying digital assets like Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other altcoins.

DeFi (Decentralized Finance)

Decentralized Finance, or DeFi, is a term used to describe a collection of financial applications and protocols built on blockchain technology.

Distributed Ledger

Distributed ledger technology (DLT) is a decentralized digital system that records and verifies transactions across multiple participants or nodes.

Double Spending

Double spending refers to the act of using the same digital token more than once. It is a fraudulent tactic in which a user deceives the system into accepting duplicate transactions, undermining the integrity and trust in digital currency systems.

DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organizations)

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) are aiming to create self-governing and decentralized entities, eliminating the need for intermediaries and promoting community-driven decision-making.


Decentralization is the core principle that sets DApps apart from traditional applications. In a decentralized system, data and control are distributed across a network of nodes, making it resistant to censorship and single points of failure. Blockchain technology plays a pivotal role in achieving decentralization within DApps.



ERC-777 is a token standard that builds upon the features of the popular ERC-20 standard. It introduces enhanced functionality, making it easier for developers and users to interact with tokens on the Ethereum blockchain.

Email Spoofing

Email spoofing is a deceptive practice where the sender manipulates the header information in an email to make it appear as though it was sent by someone else, often for malicious purposes.


The uniqueness of ERC-721 tokens is particularly valuable for applications like digital collectibles, virtual assets in gaming, digital art, and real-world asset representation on the blockchain. These tokens enable ownership, provenance, and the ability to verify the scarcity of digital or physical assets with unparalleled precision.


The term "ERC-20" stands for "Ethereum Request for Comment 20," and it represents a standardized protocol governing the creation and behavior of tokens on the Ethereum blockchain.


EIP-1559, or Ethereum Improvement Proposal 1559, is a proposal designed to reform Ethereum's fee market and monetary policy. It was first introduced in 2021 by Ethereum's co-founder, Vitalik Buterin, and has gained widespread attention and support within the Ethereum community.


Fork Choice Rule

The fork choice rule is a critical mechanism in blockchain technology, particularly within the Ethereum network, that enables nodes to reach consensus on the canonical chain (the legitimate ledger) when the network splits into competing forks.

Full Node  

A full node is a critical component in the blockchain network, responsible for maintaining and validating the blockchain's integrity.

Fee Tiers

Fee tiers in cryptocurrency exchanges are an important aspect of the trading process that every investor and trader should understand.

Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre (FINTRAC) of Canada

The Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre (FINTRAC) of Canada was established to combat money laundering and terrorist financing activities, serving as the national financial intelligence agency, contributing significantly to the integrity of Canada's financial system and safety of Canadians.

Front Running

Front running is a term often associated with trading and financial markets. It describes the act of executing transactions based on advance, non-public knowledge of upcoming trades that will influence the price of an asset.

Financial Crime Enforcement Network (FinCEN)

The Financial Crime Enforcement Network (FinCEN) is a central agency in the United States responsible for safeguarding the financial system from illicit use, combating money laundering, and promoting national security through the collection, analysis, and dissemination of financial intelligence and strategic use of financial authorities.

FUD (Fear, uncertainty, and doubt)

In the volatile landscape of cryptocurrencies, the term FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt) holds considerable sway. This phenomena can be fueled by rumors and misinformation, causing drastic market fluctuations. It may prey on investor sentiment, instigating fear of potential loss, uncertainty about market stability, and doubt about the integrity of particular cryptocurrencies or the overall crypto market.

Flash loans

Unlike traditional loans, flash loans do not require borrowers to provide collateral upfront. Instead, they exploit the composability and speed of blockchain transactions to borrow funds and repay them within the same transaction.


GPG Encryption  

GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) is an implementation of the OpenPGP (Pretty Good Privacy) standard. It provides an open-source solution for encrypting and signing data and communications, ensuring both security and authenticity.

Geth (Go Ethereum)

Geth is a command-line interface (CLI) for running Ethereum nodes. An Ethereum node is essentially a participant in the Ethereum network, responsible for validating transactions, maintaining the blockchain, and executing smart contracts.


GameFi, a portmanteau of "gaming" and "finance," represents a growing sector within the digital economy that merges blockchain technology with video gaming.

Game Channels

Game channels represent an innovative technology in the realm of blockchain gaming, designed to enhance the scalability, speed, and user experience of decentralized games. By facilitating real-time, secure, and cost-effective transactions within games, game channels are pivotal in overcoming some of the inherent challenges faced by blockchain networks, such as high latency and transaction fees.

Goguen Phase

The Goguen Phase represents a significant evolution in the development of the Cardano blockchain, introducing a versatile platform for smart contracts and the creation of decentralized applications (DApps).

Gas Price

Understanding and optimizing crypto transaction fees can make a significant difference in your digital currency experience. While Ethereum and Polygon use the term “gas fees,” most other blockchains such as Solana and Bitcoin simply use the term “transaction fees.”


Hedge Contract  

A hedge contract is a financial instrument that investors use to protect against the risk of financial loss due to market fluctuations.


Hyperledger is an open-source collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies.

Hot Wallet

A hot wallet is a digital wallet used to store, send, and receive cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin or Ethereum. The reason it's called "hot" is because it's connected to the internet, just as we might say a stove is "hot" when it's on and connected to gas or electricity.

Hard Fork

A hard fork in the blockchain is akin to an evolutionary split. It's a fundamental update to the blockchain's protocol, introducing changes incompatible with the older version.

Hash Rate

Simply put, hash rate is the speed at which a crypto miner's machine operates. It measures how many calculations (hashes) a machine can solve per second when trying to discover new blocks in a blockchain network.


Institutional Investor

An institutional investor is an organization or legal entity that invests on behalf of its clients, who may be retail investors.

Intercontinental Exchange (ICE)

The Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) is a pivotal establishment in the global financial market, known for its operation and ownership of exchanges for financial and commodity markets.

In-the-Money / Out-of-the-Money

Options trading offers investors a range of strategies to navigate the markets and potentially secure profits. Central to understanding options are the concepts of "in-the-money" (ITM) and "out-of-the-money" (OTM), terms that indicate the position and value of an option relative to the current market price of the underlying asset. These mechanisms are crucial for traders to comprehend as they make informed decisions and develop trading strategies.

Initial Farm Offering (IFO)

In the decentralized finance (DeFi) landscape, fundraising mechanisms have taken center stage, with innovative solutions constantly emerging.


In everyday language and technical fields, the term "immutable" describes something that cannot be changed or altered.

Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC)

The Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol was conceived and brought to life by the Cosmos (ATOM) team as a solution to the pressing issue of blockchain interoperability.


Inflation is the rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising, and subsequently, purchasing power is falling.

Initial DEX Offering (IDO)

Initial DEX Offering (IDO) represents an important evolution in crypto fundraising, introducing a decentralized and community-centric approach to token sales. Unlike their centralized counterparts, IDOs redefine the fundraising landscape by harnessing the principles of decentralized finance (DeFi), placing the power into the hands of project teams and their communities.


An ICO, also known as a token sale, is a process where new digital currencies or tokens are offered to investors in exchange for established cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Ethereum, or other assets.


An innovation that has been gaining significant attention - the InterPlanetary File System, or IPFS - a protocol that promises to revolutionize file storage on the blockchain, offering enhanced security, decentralization, and efficiency.


KYC (Know Your Customer)

Whether you're a seasoned crypto enthusiast or just starting your journey, understanding the KYC (Know Your Customer) process is essential to ensure compliance, security, and trust in the digital asset ecosystem.


Limit Order

A limit order is a type of order to purchase or sell a security at a specified price or a better one.

Location Swap

A location swap refers to the process where ownership of a tokenized asset changes hands from one party to another without altering any other attributes of the asset.

Liquid Market

A liquid market is characterized by the presence of a large number of buyers and sellers, which ensures that trading activities can be executed quickly and efficiently.

Liquidity Bootstrapping Pool (LBP)

Liquidity Bootstrapping Pools (LBPs) have emerged in the DeFi landscape as a significant innovation, designed to address the critical challenge of liquidity for new projects.


Liquidation, in financial terms, refers to the process of converting assets into cash or its equivalents.

Lightning Network

The Lightning Network, often referred to as "Lightning," is a second-layer solution for the Bitcoin blockchain. It introduces a new way of conducting transactions, enabling them to be faster, more efficient, and cost-effective by processing them off-chain. In essence, it's like a network of private roads that bypass Bitcoin's congested main highway.

Liquidity pools

Liquidity mining

Liquidity mining, often referred to as yield farming, is a decentralized finance strategy that involves users providing liquidity to specific cryptocurrency markets or platforms in exchange for rewards.


Money Transmitter

A money transmitter is a business entity that provides money transfer services or payment instruments.

My Story (VeChain)

My Story is an innovative digital assurance solution developed through a collaboration between DNV, a global provider of assurance services, and VeChain, a pioneer in blockchain technology.


Cryptocurrency mining is a process where blocks are added to a blockchain, verifying transactions. It is also the process through which new Bitcoin and some altcoins are created.


A mainchain is the primary blockchain layer where all transactions are processed and finalized. It serves as the central ledger for a blockchain network, recording and securing all transactions made within its system.

Maximal Extractable Value (MEV)

Maximal extractable value (MEV) refers to the maximum profit a miner or validator can achieve by manipulating the order of transactions in the blocks they produce on a blockchain.


Malware refers to any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, client, or computer network.

Move (Programming Language)

Move is a modern programming language designed specifically for creating smart contracts and facilitating secure, programmable transactions on the blockchain.

Monetary Policy

Monetary policy refers to the strategies and actions employed by a country's central bank or a regional monetary authority, like the European Central Bank in the European Union, to control the amount of money circulating in the economy, managing interest rates and influencing the economy's overall liquidity to achieve broader economic objectives.

Moore's Law

Moore's Law is a principle that has significantly influenced the evolution of computing technology over the past several decades. Initially observed by Gordon Moore, the co-founder of Intel, in 1965, this law posits that the number of transistors on a microchip doubles approximately every two years, though the cost of computers is halved. Moore's initial observation has become a guiding principle for the semiconductor industry, leading to exponential increases in computing power and efficiency.

Money Flow Index (MFI)

The Money Flow Index (MFI) is a technical indicator used by investors and traders to measure the strength of money flowing in and out of an asset. It combines price and volume data to identify overbought or oversold conditions in the trading of an asset, offering insights into potential reversals and price movements. The MFI is often referred to as a volume-weighted relative strength index (RSI), as it incorporates volume, unlike the traditional RSI which only considers price.


Mnemonics are memory aids designed to help individuals recall complex information through simpler, more digestible forms. This technique, rooted in the principles of cognitive psychology, employs various systems such as patterns of letters, ideas, or associations to facilitate the process of memorization and retrieval of information. 


A masternode is a specialized node in a blockchain network that performs unique functions beyond the basic validation of transactions. Unlike regular nodes that participate in reaching consensus through processes like mining or staking, masternodes provide additional services that enhance the overall performance and efficiency of the network.



A Non-Fungible Token (NFT) is a digital asset that represents ownership or proof of authenticity of a unique item or piece of content, on the blockchain



Over-collateralization (OC) refers to the practice of providing collateral that exceeds the value of the loan or debt obligation. T

Offline Storage (Cold Storage)

Offline storage, also known as cold storage, refers to the practice of storing cryptocurrencies in devices or systems that are not connected to the internet.

On-Chain Governance

On-chain governance is a decentralized framework used for organizing and integrating updates and improvements to blockchain networks.

Ontorand Consensus Engine (Ontology)

The Ontorand Consensus Engine (OCE) operates on the Ontology blockchain using the Verifiable Byzantine Fault Tolerance (VBFT) consensus mechanism.

Ouroboros Praos

Ouroboros Praos is a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus mechanism developed by IOHK, designed as an enhanced version of its predecessor, Ouroboros Classic.

Open Source

Open source refers to a philosophy and practice that promotes the free and open sharing of information and resources, particularly in software development.

Opera Mainnet (Fantom)

Opera Mainnet, powered by Fantom, is a decentralized, permissionless, and open-source platform that significantly enhances user participation in blockchain operations through staking and on-chain governance.

On-Ledger Currency

On-ledger currency represents digital money that exists and operates entirely within a blockchain ledger.


In the context of blockchain and smart contracts, an oracle is a decentralized data source or service that feeds real-world information into the blockchain. Oracles serve as intermediaries between the off-chain world and on-chain smart contracts, facilitating the execution of contract terms when specific conditions are met.


Quantum Computing

Quantum computing represents a revolutionary leap in computational technology, harnessing phenomena from quantum mechanics to perform vastly more efficient computations compared to classical computer technologies.

Quantum Bit (Qubit)

In quantum computing, the quantum bit, often called a qubit, is the basic building block of quantum information.


Relay Nodes

Relay nodes play a pivotal role in blockchain networks, particularly in enhancing communication and security between block-producing nodes.


The term "Regen" was introduced by Raphaël Haupt, who co-founded Toucan. This company builds infrastructure for carbon markets and supports global initiatives aimed at addressing climate change.

Revenue Participation Tokens

Revenue Participation Tokens (RPTs) are part of a two-token system designed to revolutionize how investors engage with and benefit from revenue-generating projects or platforms.

Replay Attack

A Replay Attack is a type of network security breach. It occurs when a malicious actor intercepts and retransmits a data transmission between a sender and a receiver.


Retargeting, in the context of blockchain technology and specifically within Proof of Work (PoW) networks, refers to the difficulty adjustment algorithm that ensures the consistent timing of block creation, regardless of the total computing power of the network.


In the financial space, the term "regulated" carries significant weight, especially in the context of cryptocurrency and traditional financial markets. Simply put, regulation refers to the imposition of rules and standards set by governing bodies to oversee and control the activities of financial institutions, including those involved in cryptocurrency. 


Ransomware is a cybercriminal action carried out with malicious software designed to encrypt files and hold them hostage, demanding a ransom from the victim to regain access.


Soft Cap

An initial coin offering (ICO) is a method used by cryptocurrency startups to raise funds. The term "soft cap" refers to the minimum amount of money that an ICO aims to raise.

Supply Chain Attack

A supply chain attack is a sophisticated cyberattack method where hackers target less secure elements in the supply network of major organizations to gain unauthorized access to sensitive data and systems.

Smart Money  

Smart money refers to the funds invested by individuals or entities with extensive financial experience, knowledge, and a keen eye for lucrative opportunities.

Synthetic Asset

Synthetic assets, often referred to as synths, represent a unique blend of cryptocurrency features with traditional financial derivatives.

Spot Market

A spot market is a public financial market in which assets, such as cryptocurrencies, are traded for immediate delivery.


Stagflation is a term used to describe a period in which an economy experiences stagnant growth combined with rising inflation.

Seed Funding

Seed funding is a type of financing provided to early-stage startups in exchange for equity in the company.

Scaling Problem

The "Scaling Problem" in blockchain technology refers to the challenge of increasing a network's capacity to handle a higher volume of transactions simultaneously.


A scammer is an individual engaged in deceitful schemes with the intent to defraud or cheat others.

Shielded Transaction

A shielded transaction is a type of blockchain transaction that occurs between two shielded addresses, providing enhanced privacy and security.

Sell Wall

A sell wall occurs in cryptocurrency trading when a large limit order is placed to sell a particular cryptocurrency once it reaches a specific price.

Shelley Phase

The Shelley Phase marks a significant milestone in the evolution of the Cardano network, which is a top 10 blockchain platform known for its focus on sustainability, scalability, and decentralization.

Supply Chain

A supply chain is a network of interconnected entities, including manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, retailers, and customers, involved in the production, distribution, and sale of goods and services. It encompasses all the processes and activities required to deliver products or services to end consumers, from raw material sourcing to final delivery.


Sidechains serve as a vital component designed to tackle various challenges faced by blockchain networks. In essence, sidechains function as parallel chains that run alongside the primary blockchain, providing additional capabilities and solutions.


Sharding is a technique used in blockchain technology to improve scalability and transaction speed. It involves partitioning the blockchain network into smaller, more manageable pieces called "shards," each capable of processing transactions independently.


The term "satoshi" represents the smallest unit of Bitcoin, named after its pseudonymous creator. One BTC is divisible into 100 million satoshis, making it possible to conduct even tiny transactions with fractions of a BTC.

Soft Fork

In the world of blockchain technology, a concept that often generates curiosity and intrigue is the phenomenon known as a "soft fork." At its core, a soft fork is an alteration or upgrade in the protocol of a blockchain network that is backward-compatible. This means that non-upgraded nodes of the blockchain are still capable of processing transactions and pushing new blocks to the blockchain, even though they may not recognize the updated rules introduced by the fork.

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, also known as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade for blockchains essentially increasing the block size limit. This is achieved by removing signature data from transactions. As a result, transaction speed is improved and the system's scalability is enhanced.


Token Standard 

A token standard defines a set of rules and protocols that govern how tokens operate on a blockchain.


Tendermint is an open-source framework designed to launch blockchains. It enables developers to create applications in any programming language and facilitates communication between different blockchains, enhancing interoperability and flexibility.

Type Checking

Type checking is a critical process in programming languages that ensures each operation in a program aligns with the language's type declaration rules.


Timelock, also known as locktime, is a feature used in blockchain technology that sets a condition for a transaction to be processed only at a specific future time or after a certain number of blocks have been added to the blockchain.

Trading Analysis

In financial markets, trading analysis stands as a cornerstone for successful investment decisions. This method combines various statistical analyses, focusing on market metrics like price and volume, to gauge the market's health and direction. By employing charts and other analytical tools, traders can discern patterns that help formulate strategic trading and investment decisions. 

Tamper-Proof Ledger

A tamper-proof ledger is a system designed to maintain records in a secure, unalterable manner.


The TRC-10 standard is a technical specification for token creation within the TRON blockchain.


The term "Turing-complete" refers to a system or programming language that has the computational power to solve any problem, given enough time and resources.

Total Supply

Total Supply refers to the total amount of coins or tokens that are currently in existence, minus any coins that have been verifiably burned.


A Tipset, short for "Tip Set," is a group of multiple blocks at the same height in a blockchain that can include more than one block having the same parent block.


TokenSets is a decentralized platform designed for the automated management of cryptocurrency portfolios.

Trading Volume

Crypto trading volume refers to the total number of digital assets or cryptocurrencies traded within a specific period. It represents the cumulative amount of buying and selling activity in the crypto market during that time frame. The trading volume is typically measured in terms of the base currency, such as Bitcoin (BTC) or Ethereum (ETH), and represents the total value of assets traded.


Tokenomics, a portmanteau of "token" and "economics," refers to the economic principles, utility, and factors that underlie the design, issuance, and management of tokens.


Unpermissioned Ledger

Unpermissioned ledgers stand out as a foundational pillar that democratizes access to digital ledger technology (DLT). Unlike their permissioned counterparts, which require specific authorizations to participate, unpermissioned ledgers offer an open, decentralized platform where anyone can join, read, and write data without the need for an invitation or approval from a governing body.

Utility Token

Utility tokens offer various benefits, such as granting access to exclusive features, discounted fees, or voting rights within a decentralized organization.


Virgin Bitcoin

Virgin Bitcoin refers to a Bitcoin that has never been spent since its creation or "mining." These bitcoins have a pristine transaction history, meaning they have not been transferred between wallets or used in any transactions on the blockchain.


Volatility is a fundamental concept in finance, serving as a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a specific asset or market index.

Virtual Commodity Association (VCA)

The Virtual Commodity Association (VCA) is a non-profit organization established by leading cryptocurrency exchanges and financial technology companies including Gemini, Bitstamp, BitFlyer USA, and more. Its primary goal is to foster transparency, trust, and security within the digital asset market by creating industry standards and promoting best practices.



A Watcher in the context of the OMG Network plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity and reliability of the network.

Wasabi Wallet

Wasabi Wallet is an open-source, non-custodial, privacy-focused Bitcoin wallet designed for desktop use on Windows, Linux, and macOS platforms.

Wrapped Bitcoin

Wrapped Bitcoin, denoted as WBTC, is a tokenized version of Bitcoin that operates on the Ethereum blockchain. It represents a novel approach to combining the strengths of Bitcoin and Ethereum, two of the most influential cryptocurrencies in existence.


Year to Date (YTD)

Year to Date (YTD) is a financial term that is commonly used in various contexts, such as investing, accounting, and financial reporting. It provides a snapshot of an organization's or individual's financial performance or investment returns from the beginning of the current calendar year up to the present date. 

Yield Farming

Yield Farming is an investment strategy in the decentralized finance (DeFi) sector where users stake or lend cryptocurrency assets in order to generate high returns. It involves providing liquidity or participating in a lending protocol to earn interest, rewards, or fees, which are usually paid in the form of tokens.


Zero Knowledge Rollups

Zero-Knowledge Rollups (ZK-rollups) are an innovative Layer 2 scaling solution for blockchains, particularly Ethereum.