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Coinmetro Crypto Glossary

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51% Attack

A 51% attack refers to a scenario where a single entity or a group of colluding entities control over 51% of the total computing power (hashrate) in a blockchain network.

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Atomic Swap

An atomic swap, also known as atomic cross-chain trading, is a cryptographic protocol that allows two parties to exchange different cryptocurrencies or digital assets directly, between two blockchains, without the need for an intermediary or trusted third party.


Blockchain Interoperability

Blockchain interoperability refers to the ability of different blockchain networks to communicate, share data, and perform transactions across each other seamlessly. It aims to break down the barriers that isolate blockchains, enabling them to work together as part of a broader interconnected ecosystem.

Beacon Chain

The Beacon Chain is Ethereum’s Proof-of-Stake layer and serves as the backbone of the new Ethereum network. The Beacon Chain manages the consensus protocol and coordinates the activities of validators, who are responsible for proposing and validating blocks in the Ethereum 2.0 network.

Bitcoin Pizza Day

The Bitcoin Pizza Day is a story that serves as both a celebration of Bitcoin's early days and a stark reminder of how far the cryptocurrency has come.

Bull Market

A bull market is a term used to describe a prolonged period of optimism, rising prices, and increased investor confidence in the financial markets. In this type of market, asset prices, such as stocks, bonds, or cryptocurrencies, experience a sustained upward trend. Investors often refer to bull markets as times of opportunity and potential profit.

Blockchain Trilemma

In the world of blockchain technology, the term "trilemma" refers to the challenging trade-off between three crucial aspects: decentralization, security, and scalability. Balancing these elements is essential to harness the full potential of blockchain networks and drive widespread adoption.

Bear Market

A bear market is a term used to describe a prolonged period of declining asset prices, typically accompanied by widespread pessimism and investor sell-offs.

Bitcoin Halving

Bitcoin halving is a significant event in the life cycle of the Bitcoin network, where the reward for mining new blocks is halved periodically. The process occurs approximately every four years or after 210,000 blocks have been added to the Bitcoin blockchain.

Byzantine Fault Tolerance

Discover the principles behind Byzantine Fault Tolerance and its impact on resilient systems. Explore now!


Crypto Faucet

At its core, a crypto faucet is a website or application that rewards users with small amounts of cryptocurrency for completing specific tasks or captcha challenges. These tasks can vary widely, from viewing ads to playing games, taking surveys, or simply clicking a button at regular intervals.

Cryptocurrency Exchange

Exchanges are the essential gateways for buying, selling, and trading digital assets. Two primary types of exchanges have emerged: centralized exchanges (CEXs) and decentralized exchanges (DEXs).


Cryptojacking refers to the unauthorized use of someone's computing resources to mine cryptocurrencies without their knowledge or consent.

Crypto Address

A crypto address is a fundamental concept in the crypto landscape. Essentially, a crypto address functions as a virtual mailbox specifically designed for storing, sending and receiving cryptocurrencies. It serves as a digital gateway that facilitates the smooth flow of funds, allowing users to send and receive digital assets with ease and security.



Decentralization is the core principle that sets DApps apart from traditional applications. In a decentralized system, data and control are distributed across a network of nodes, making it resistant to censorship and single points of failure. Blockchain technology plays a pivotal role in achieving decentralization within DApps.

DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organizations)

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) are aiming to create self-governing and decentralized entities, eliminating the need for intermediaries and promoting community-driven decision-making.

DeFi (Decentralized Finance)

Decentralized Finance, or DeFi, is a term used to describe a collection of financial applications and protocols built on blockchain technology.

Distributed Ledger

Distributed ledger technology (DLT) is a decentralized digital system that records and verifies transactions across multiple participants or nodes.

Double Spending

Double spending refers to the act of using the same digital token more than once. It is a fraudulent tactic in which a user deceives the system into accepting duplicate transactions, undermining the integrity and trust in digital currency systems.



The term "ERC-20" stands for "Ethereum Request for Comment 20," and it represents a standardized protocol governing the creation and behavior of tokens on the Ethereum blockchain.


EIP-1559, or Ethereum Improvement Proposal 1559, is a proposal designed to reform Ethereum's fee market and monetary policy. It was first introduced in 2021 by Ethereum's co-founder, Vitalik Buterin, and has gained widespread attention and support within the Ethereum community.


Flash loans

Unlike traditional loans, flash loans do not require borrowers to provide collateral upfront. Instead, they exploit the composability and speed of blockchain transactions to borrow funds and repay them within the same transaction.

FUD (Fear, uncertainty, and doubt)

In the volatile landscape of cryptocurrencies, the term FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt) holds considerable sway. This phenomena can be fueled by rumors and misinformation, causing drastic market fluctuations. It may prey on investor sentiment, instigating fear of potential loss, uncertainty about market stability, and doubt about the integrity of particular cryptocurrencies or the overall crypto market.


Gas Price

Understanding and optimizing crypto transaction fees can make a significant difference in your digital currency experience. While Ethereum and Polygon use the term “gas fees,” most other blockchains such as Solana and Bitcoin simply use the term “transaction fees.”


Hot Wallet

A hot wallet is a digital wallet used to store, send, and receive cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin or Ethereum. The reason it's called "hot" is because it's connected to the internet, just as we might say a stove is "hot" when it's on and connected to gas or electricity.

Hard Fork

A hard fork in the blockchain is akin to an evolutionary split. It's a fundamental update to the blockchain's protocol, introducing changes incompatible with the older version.

Hash Rate

Simply put, hash rate is the speed at which a crypto miner's machine operates. It measures how many calculations (hashes) a machine can solve per second when trying to discover new blocks in a blockchain network.



An innovation that has been gaining significant attention - the InterPlanetary File System, or IPFS - a protocol that promises to revolutionize file storage on the blockchain, offering enhanced security, decentralization, and efficiency.


An ICO, also known as a token sale, is a process where new digital currencies or tokens are offered to investors in exchange for established cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Ethereum, or other assets.


KYC (Know Your Customer)

Whether you're a seasoned crypto enthusiast or just starting your journey, understanding the KYC (Know Your Customer) process is essential to ensure compliance, security, and trust in the digital asset ecosystem.


Liquidity pools

Liquidity mining

Liquidity mining, often referred to as yield farming, is a decentralized finance strategy that involves users providing liquidity to specific cryptocurrency markets or platforms in exchange for rewards.



A Non-Fungible Token (NFT) is a digital asset that represents ownership or proof of authenticity of a unique item or piece of content, on the blockchain



In the context of blockchain and smart contracts, an oracle is a decentralized data source or service that feeds real-world information into the blockchain. Oracles serve as intermediaries between the off-chain world and on-chain smart contracts, facilitating the execution of contract terms when specific conditions are met.



Ransomware is a cybercriminal action carried out with malicious software designed to encrypt files and hold them hostage, demanding a ransom from the victim to regain access.



Sidechains serve as a vital component designed to tackle various challenges faced by blockchain networks. In essence, sidechains function as parallel chains that run alongside the primary blockchain, providing additional capabilities and solutions.


Sharding is a technique used in blockchain technology to improve scalability and transaction speed. It involves partitioning the blockchain network into smaller, more manageable pieces called "shards," each capable of processing transactions independently.

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, also known as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade for blockchains essentially increasing the block size limit. This is achieved by removing signature data from transactions. As a result, transaction speed is improved and the system's scalability is enhanced.


The term "satoshi" represents the smallest unit of Bitcoin, named after its pseudonymous creator. One BTC is divisible into 100 million satoshis, making it possible to conduct even tiny transactions with fractions of a BTC.

Soft Fork

In the world of blockchain technology, a concept that often generates curiosity and intrigue is the phenomenon known as a "soft fork." At its core, a soft fork is an alteration or upgrade in the protocol of a blockchain network that is backward-compatible. This means that non-upgraded nodes of the blockchain are still capable of processing transactions and pushing new blocks to the blockchain, even though they may not recognize the updated rules introduced by the fork.



Tokenomics, a portmanteau of "token" and "economics," refers to the economic principles, utility, and factors that underlie the design, issuance, and management of tokens.

Trading Volume

Crypto trading volume refers to the total number of digital assets or cryptocurrencies traded within a specific period. It represents the cumulative amount of buying and selling activity in the crypto market during that time frame. The trading volume is typically measured in terms of the base currency, such as Bitcoin (BTC) or Ethereum (ETH), and represents the total value of assets traded.


Utility Token

Utility tokens offer various benefits, such as granting access to exclusive features, discounted fees, or voting rights within a decentralized organization.


Wrapped Bitcoin

Wrapped Bitcoin, denoted as WBTC, is a tokenized version of Bitcoin that operates on the Ethereum blockchain. It represents a novel approach to combining the strengths of Bitcoin and Ethereum, two of the most influential cryptocurrencies in existence.


Yield Farming

Yield Farming is an investment strategy in the decentralized finance (DeFi) sector where users stake or lend cryptocurrency assets in order to generate high returns. It involves providing liquidity or participating in a lending protocol to earn interest, rewards, or fees, which are usually paid in the form of tokens.