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Glossary

A

Altcoin

Bitcoin was the first Crypto to ever be invented, all other Cryptos are known as altcoins, or "alternative coins".

Accredited Investor

An accredited investor has a net worth of over $1 million and/or an annual salary exceeding $200,0

AML

In full, Anti-Money Laundering. The related regulations require companies to obtain personal data about customers

ATH

All-Time High, the highest price a Crypto has ever reached.

ATL

All-Time Low, the opposite of ATH (see above).

Algorithm

In blockchain technology, algorithm is used to verify transaction.

Airdrop

Giving out tokens of a new Crypto to people who already hold existing Cryptos.

Angel Investor

Investors who donate more than $1,000,000 to startups.

Arbitrage

Simultaneously buying and selling the same coins on different exchanges to benefit from price differences.

API

Application Programmer Interface, a toolkit for developers to create applications.

Atomic Swap

Atomic The exchange Swap of one coin/token for another coin/token with no participation of a third party.

51% Attack

A malicious attack that results in gaining control of over 50% of a Crypto's hashing power, then rewriting old block and allowing double-speed.

B

Block Explorer

Websites designed to check transaction details based on its address or ID.

Batched Transaction

Multiple transactions combined in one to increase efficiency and decrease fees.

BTC

Ticker symbol for Bitcoin.

Bear Trap

A drop in a Crypto price to fool investors, or "bears", into thinking it will be dropping, when the price actually goes higher up.

Bitcoin Core

The original Bitcoin wallet that is considerd to be one of the safest wallets available.

Bitcoin Cash

The very first Bitcoin fork that occurred on August 1, 2016.

Bitcoin

The first decentralized Crypto invented in 2009. Bitcoin is the most widely known and popular coin.

Bull Trap

Contrary to Bear Trap, Bull Trap is a short rise in a Crypto price that tricks investors into thinking that the price will be rising, whereas it falls instead.

Bullish

Being optimistic about the future developments of a Crypto price.

Bull

A trader or person who is optimistic about future Crypto prices.

Bull Market

A market showing mostly rising prices.

Bearish

Being pessimistic about the future developments of a Crypto price.

Bear

A trader or person who is pessimistic about the future Crypto prices.

Bear Market

A market showing mostly falling prices.

Bollinger Bands

A type of charts used to identify an asset's price being too high or too low for proper decision-making.

Blockchain

A digital computer file that contains data about all the transactions for a given Crypto.

Block Size

The amount of data that can be stored in one block of a blockchain.

Blockchain 2.0

Blockchain 2.0 refers to the new applications of a given database, or programmable transactions instead of just storing and transferring value.

Blockchain Bloat

This is when the data stored in a blockchain reaches high volumes, thus affecting transaction speed.

Burn

Burn is a mechanism that destroys a certain amount of coins/tokens, affecting the total Crypto coin supply.

C

Centralized

As opposed to decentralized in Cryptos, centralized means controlled by a group or within an area.

Circulating Supply

The total amount of one type of Crypto coins in circulation at a given time.

Cryptocurrency

Money that exists only in digital form and uses cryptography.

Coinbase Exchange

Coinbase is the first real Crypto exchange.

Cold Wallet

An offline Crypto wallet that is considered to be much safer than hot wallets.

Cypherpunks

Members of the Crypto community involved in the early stages of Bitcoin development, advocating strong encryption.

Central Ledger

A final list of all the transactions that have ever taken place on a platform.

Coin

Any Crypto that functions based only on its own technology.

Circulation

Free circulation of the existing coins between individuals.

D

Darknet

The Darknet is a special network where websites are extremely difficult to shut down and that was one of the first networks to use Cryptos for transactions.

dApps

Distributed Apps that have no centralized control.

Distributed Network

A distributed network uses nodes in many locations worldwide to achieve decentralization.

Dump

Selling Cryptos

DPoS

Delegated Proof of Stake, a consensus mechanism in which nodes of a blockchain choose its correct version.

Double Spend

Double Spend is a problem that occurs when a Crypto is spent more than once.

DAO

Decentralized Autonomous Organization that allocates funds to Crypto-related projects.

Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance

This is a consensus mechanism that applies professional nodes to stream one version of a blockchain.

Distributed Ledger

A transaction list on every computer that has blockchain software installed.

Digital Signature

A unique digital signature used for digital identities and authenticity confirmation.

Darksend

Darksend relates to Darkcoin and allows users to make anonymous transactions.

DDoS

Distributed Denial of Service Attack. A means by which a malicious individual shuts down another individual's Internet connection by overloading it with requests.

Deepweb

The Internet parts not everyone has access to.

Deflation

Crypto supply shortage that results in price increase.

Demurrage

A tax on Crypto holdings to encourage spending coins.

Desktop Wallet

Software for storing Cryptos on your personal computer.

Dust Transactions

Transfers of too small a value to be sent due to the high fee incurred.

Digital Asset

Any owned or controlled non-physical object of value, such as a document, a file, etc.

Digital Identity

Data used to represent an entity or individual on a network or on the Internet.

Decentralized

Distributed amongst individuals, not controlled by a certain group or within an area.

Digital Asset Array

A Crypto collection or portfolio.

Distributed Autonomous Company

A company that earns profit for its shareholders, creating value for the free market.

dPoW

Delayed Proof of Work, a consensus mechanism that allows one blockchain to take advantage of the security of another one.

DEX

Decentralized Exchange, an independent platform to buy and sell Cryptos.

E

Ethereum (ETH)

Ethereum is a cryptocurrency invented by Vitalik Buterin that was the first blockchain-based technology to enable smart contracts and decentralized applications.

ERC20 Token

Token issued on the ETH platform.

Exchange

Online platforms that allow users to buy and sell Cryptos.

Escrow

A third party to increase security and make transactions easier.

ETCF

Exchange Traded Crypto Fund is a CoinMetro exclusive, meaning that a group of assets can be bought or sold as a single asset.

Ephemeral Layer

A messaging functionality that is extremely secure.

Ephemeral Layer

A messaging functionality that is extremely secure.

F

Faucet

A website that sends small amounts of Cryptos and makes profit by means of advertising.

Fiat Currency

Fiat currency is paper money and default currency issued by the governments, e.g., the US Dollar, the Euro, etc.

FOMO

Fear of Missing Out, as in fear of missing the profits.

FUD

Fear Uncertainty and Doubt, an irrational fear that Crypto prices will fall.

Fungibility

The concept of all money supply units being equal.

Founders’ Reward

A percentage of block reward paid to the founders of a Crypto.

Fork

A fork is a change in the original software code. There are hard and soft forks. A hard fork is a change incompatible with the original version, whereas a soft fork is still compatible with the original version.

Forging Reward

Coins paid to users for their participation in PoS consensus.

G

Gas

A fee to be paid to execute a network transaction.

Genesis Block

The very first block ever mined on a blockchain.

H

Hardware Wallet

An actual device used to store private keys.

Hash

Output from an algorithm to maintain consensus on a blockchain.

Hard Cap

The maximum amount money that the founder of a Crypto will accept raising money in exchange for coins in the early stages.

Hot Wallet

An online wallet used to store Cryptos that is also less secure than cold wallets.

Haskell

A programming language that was used to develop some Cryptos, e.g., Cardano.

Hybrid PoS/PoW

A hybrid consensus mechanism that uses both PoS and PoW algorithms.

I

ICO

Initial Coin Offering, or a Crypto project going public, offering coins in exchange for funds.

IRS

Internal Revenue Service, a US tax collection agency collecting information about Crypto exchanges.

Inflation

An increase in Crypto supply that results in a price decrease.

J

Jihan Wu

CEO of Bitmain, the largest distributor of Crypto mining machines.

K

KYC

Know Your Customer. Customer identification based on personal data in compliance with AML (Anti Money Laundering) laws.

Kimoto Gravity Well

An algorithm that serves to adjust the difficulty of mining for all miners to have equal chances.

L

Long

A long bet is the one that sees a Crypto price rising.

Lightning Network

A network layer on top of the Bitcoin blockchain enabling free microtransactions.

Laundry

A Crypto originally used for money-laundering purposes.

Leverage

Money borrowed to trade assets.

Litecoin

A Crypto forked from Bitcoin that stands out for its faster transactions.

Liquidity

Liquidity measures how quickly an asset can be exchanged for usable currency.

Liquidity Swap

An exchange that deals specifically with assests and currencies.

M

Market Cap

The total value of a Crypto that is calculated by multiplying a coin's price by its total supply.

Margin Call

An act of investor selling their position to repay the loan lender.

Mainnet

The protocol version that uses real money.

Mnemonic

Keywords that are used to recover an e-wallet or account.

Monero

A Crypto that is popular for its anonymity as compared to Bitcoin and other altcoins.

Miner

A person who applies computing power to verify transactions on a blockchain to get block rewards.

Mining

The creation of new coins as transactions on a network are verified.

Mining Pool

Miners that work together in groups to mine blocks and split profits.

Multi-Signature

Requiring several authorization keys to execute a transaction.

Margin Trading

Borrowing funds to buy and sell assets.

Market Order

A trade that is set to execute as soon as and if a Crypto reaches a certain price.

Merged Mining

Mining two different Cryptos simultanesously provided that the same consensus algorithm is used.

Micro-transaction

A very small payment

Mining Algorithm

A mathematical problem that blockchain participants need to solve in order to get block rewards.

Minting

Minting is a process in which PoS blockchain users verify transactions and get new coins.

Mixing Service

A third party that groups payments together, enabling anonymous transactions.

Mobile Wallet

This type of wallet allows users to store Cryptos on mobile devices.

Money Laundering

The act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities into "legitimate" assets.

Multisig

Also requiring multiple keys to authorize a transaction, in particular, dividing responsibility among several parties.

Masternode

A node that serves many more purposes than regular nodes.

N

Node

A computer with Crypto software installed that verifies transactions.

Non-Accredited Investor

A person who trades Cryptos but does not have a high net worth or high salary, and is not elgiible for certain investment opportunities.

Namecoin

A Crypto that allows data to be written onto its blockchain.

Network Effect

Cryptos gaining on popularity as a result of more and more people using them.

Nonce

An arbitrary number used once in cryptography to exclude replay attacks.

O

Orphan

A block that has been excluded from the original blockchain due to the fact that it was not verified by the majority of miners.

OpSec

Operations Security as in protection of assets.

Oracle

A third party that can transmit reliable information to a blockchain to be able to execute smart contracts.

Off Blockchain Transaction

A transaction in which value is transferred outside a blockchain, quicker and cheaper.

OTC Exchange

Over The Counter Exchange refers to the trades that take place between two parties only, excluding a centralized exchange.

Open Source

Open Source refers to software available for free online editing.

P

Paper Wallet

A document that contains a private key, a public key, and relevant QR codes.

P2P

Peer-To-Peer, as in network that allows users to connect to each other rather than a central authority.

Phishing Attack

A social attack in which a malicious person acts as a trustworthy person to trick others into disclosing their personal information.

Proof of Stake (PoS)

Minting new coins in a way that allows users to stake their coins and get more coins as a reward.

Premine

A portion of Crypto coins that is reserved to its founders.

Pre-Sale

Public or private token offering to interested investors.

Private Key

A private address that is used to spend Cryptos.

Privacy Coin

Any Crypto that aims to maintain private transactions between users, e.g., Dash, ZCash, Monero.

Proof of Work (PoW)

A consensus mechanism to verify transactions and create new coins in the process.

Public Key

A publicly shared address to be able to receive a Crypto.

Pump

A rapid increase in a Crypto price.

Peercoin

A Crypto that uses both PoW and PoS for increased securirty.

Price Bubble

A price bubble occurs when an asset's market value is higher than it actual worth.

Proof of Existence

The act of storing information that can't be edited or deleted.

Plasma

A solution for Ethereum that provides for more transactions per second thanks to adding blockchains to the main Ethereum blockchain.

Parent Chain

A Crypto's main blockchain connecting sidechains.

Q

QR Code

A special code that bears information that can be read by any device that has a camera.

Quantitative Easing

A method that allows to increase monetary supply and decrease interest rates, in which a national authority introduces new money.

Quantum Computing

Advanced computing that solves even the most complex issues quickly. Quantum computing may pose a threat to Cryptos in terms of hacking private keys.

Quantum Resistant Tokens

These tokens are created with Quantum Resistant Ledger and are resistant to quantum computing attacks.

R

Remittance

Currency transfer across long distances, e.g., across borders.

Ripple

Ripple is known for providing frictionless transactions by means of connecting banks, payment providers, and digital asset exchanges.

Roadmap

A plan that contains future development plans and deadlines.

S

Seed

A password that enables a user to recover their e-wallet.

Satoshi

The pseudonym of the Bitcoin creator, also 1/100,000,000 of a Bitcoin.

Satoshi Nakamoto

Presumably, a person or a group of people that originally created Bitcoin.

Scam

A term widely used in the Crypto industry, meaning an attempt at fooling investors in some way.

Scamcoin

A coin that is only sold to make money with no potential whatsoever.

SEC

The Securities and Exchange Commision, a US agency responsible for investigating and shutting down Crypto projects.

Small Blocker

A person who believes that Bitcoin blocks need to be small for everyone to be able to run a full node.

Soft Cap

The absolute minimum amount of funds that Crypto founders are looking to raise in an ICO.

SPV mode

Simplified Payment Verification that allows e-wallets to function using local nodes with full copies of the blockchain.

Shapeshift

A trading exchange created by Eric Voorhees that allows users to trade altcoins anonymously.

Smart Contracts

Agreements between two parties that execute automatically when the required terms are met and also cancel the same way when the terms are not met.

Solidity

This is a programming language used to create smart contracts (see above).

SegWit

Segregated Witnesses, or a protocol run by Bitcoin that increases transaction speed.

Self-Executing Contract

Smart Contract (see above)

Stale Block

A block worked on by a miner but excluded from the blockchain as a different miner completes another block first.

Sidechain

A platform that functions alongside the existing blockchain protocol and allows transactions to be made off the main blockchain.

Signature

A mechanism that combines public and private addresses to ensure authenticity.

Scalability

Scalability is used to measure how a Crypto will handle an increased amount of users and transactions.

Smart Media Token

A digital asset on Steem that can be launched by any user to monetize online content and boost positive user participation.

Staker

A user who voluntarily locks some of their tokens or coins up to verify blockchain transactions for a staking reward.

SmartCoins

Cryptos with a stable price, in which the stability is achieved through pegging the value to another asset, e.g., the US dollar.

Subchain

A subchain runs separately from a main blockchain and uses the native currency for transactions, boosting scalability.

Supply Chains

Basically, delivering products and services from providers to customers.

SwiftTX

A feature of PIVX (Private Instant Verified Transaction) that carries out instant transactions.

Sharding

Splitting a full database into smaller ones, usually called "shards". Shards allow for the scalability of Cryptos.

T

Tangle

A consensus method that allows for anonymous transactions and requires a small amount of electricity.

Trader

A person who buys and/or sells Cryptos.

Testnet

An identical protocol version that uses fake funds to test a Mainnet protocol with the aim of discovering bugs.

TOR

A web browser that allows its users to open Darknet sites anonymously.

Tx

A shortened form for "transaction".

Transaction Fee

A certain amount of value that a user has to pay to transfer value on a blockchain.

Total Coin Supply

The total amount of coins that can exist within the scope of a single Crypto.

Timestamp

Timestamp is a sequence of numbers used to identify the time moment when a transaction was carried out.

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, which is a set of protocols for several computers to communicate.

Trade Volume

Trade volume measures how frequently and how much a Crypto is bought and/or sold during a given time period.

Token

A new Crypto created on another Crypto platform, e.g., Ethereum.

Trading Pair

A feature of Crypto exchanges, in which users can easily buy one Crypto with a different one.

TPS

A shortened form for "Transactions Per Second".

Two-Factor Authentication

More widely known as "2FA2, a security measure used for account protection, in which an extra piece of personal data is required along with a username and password.

U

Unstoppable Code

Software that provides for irreversible changes in an environment.

UTXO

Unspent transaction output.

UIA

User-Issued Assets, or tokens that can be created on BitShares.

V

Vanity Address

An address that holds Crypto, for which specific words and phrases can be used.

Virgin Coins

Coins that have been mined but never spent.

Venture Capitalist

A person who invests in an emerging project, hoping for a large return on the investment if the project turns out to be a success.

Volatility

Fluctuations in asset price.

Velocity of Money

Velocity of money measures the rate of currency exchange from transaction to transaction.

W

Wallet

Special software or devices containing public and private keys allowing users to store Cryptos.

Whale

A very wealthy and sought-after person who is capable of making large investments and trades.

White Paper

A very wealthy and sought-after person who is capable of making large investments and trades.

Whitelist (ICOs)

A list of legally registered ICO participants that is used to exclude non-accredited investors.

Wire Transfer

An electronic transaction that sends value from one party to another.

$5 Wrench Attack

A powerful attack on one's Crypto holdings that even the most reliable security cannot withstand.

X

XBT

A ticker for Bitcoin (and same as BTC) used on some Crypto exchanges.

XBRL Data

eXtensive Business Reporting Language that defines and exchanges financial data, simplifying the process of extracting the required data from a larger data amount.

Z

Zero Confirmation Transaction

A payment that is pending inclusion on a blockchain.

Z-Score Formula

A formula that uses data to predict financial security of businesses.

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